人力资源管理（human resource management）是管理学中的重要分支，也是现代企业中不可回避的论题。人的因素究竟对企业成功有多大的作用？人是如何影响企业的成功的？本文是EssayPhD团队创作的人力资源管理论文代写范文，应客户要求，冲击英国80分高分。EssayPhD保证范文的原创性，请勿使用作其他用途。
The Chief Executive of your chosen organisation is reviewing the HR function. She/he wants to know what contemporary research says about the contribution HR makes to organisational success. You have been commissioned by the Chief Executive to write a report titled:
Can HR make a strategic contribution to this organisation?
Your brief is:
- To select three contemporary HR issues;
- To review recent research evidence and contemporary practice relating to these Issues;
- To advise the Chief Executive on whether and how HR can make a strategic contribution to their organisation in relation to these Issues.
Note that you may argue for or against the idea that HR can make a strategic contribution. You are not required to make a case in favour of HR; whatever your stance, though, your argument must be informed by evidence.
Can HR make a strategic contribution to an organization?
Table of contents
1.0 Introduction................................................................................... 1
1.1 Organization selected : DuPont Company in Beijing Branch........................ 1
1.2 Three HR issues............................................................................................... 2
2.0 HR issues....................................................................................... 3
2.1 Motivation and teamwork............................................................................... 3
2.2 Managing diversity.......................................................................................... 5
2.3 Family-work balance....................................................................................... 6
The report aims to evaluate the role of HR in making strategic contribution to an organization based on the case study of DuPont Company in Beijing Branch (DuPont Beijing). Based on the empirical evidence and academic research, HR could make a strategic contribution to an organization.
1.1 Organization selected : DuPont Company in Beijing Branch
DuPont Company is a well-known multinational company in manufacturing and chemical industry with a history as long as over 250 years (DuPont, 2015). With such a long history of development, DuPont Company has been involved in multiple industries including construction, medical equipment, motor manufacturing, food, real estate etc. (DuPont, 2015). The organization selected for the report is DuPont Company in Beijing Branch. The author once served as an intern in the organization and therefore, much personal experience and thinking contribute to understanding of the company and its HR issues. Overall, DuPont Company in Beijing is one of the major offices of DuPont Company in China with around 300 people including management and staff employed (DuPont Beijing, 2015). The HR policies and activities are mainly aligned to the strategies and missions of the entire company. Based on the author’s personal experience and academic research, three HR issues are worthy of discussion and analysis: motivation and teamwork, managing diversity and work-family balance.
1.2 Three HR issues
1) Motivation and teamwork
Effective motivation and teamworking will create competitiveness to individuals as well as the organization. According to the Maslow’s Needs theory, it is natural for people to strive for higher level of needs when the lower level of needs is met. Motivation from financial rewards such as bonus, paid holidays as well as non-financial forms such spiritual encouragement, both would make a significant difference to the performance of employees. However, in DuPont Company in Beijing, although there exists thorough motivation and teamwork related policies and statements, in practice, they are barely practiced. This could be illustrated from little promotion from within, fixed salary based on seniority rather than performance, as well as internal conflicts between managers and employees in certain department.
2) Managing diversity
Diversity in workplace consists of various genres including gender, religion, culture, personal characters, backgrounds etc. DuPont Company in Beijing branch as part of its parent multinational company have policies in place advocating gender equality and breaking glass ceiling for excellent females. However, in the Beijing branch, the organization still demonstrates obvious disproportions in gender especially in management level. Although the general manager of the organization is a female, overall, among the heads of departments, the number of male managers far outweighs female ones. Apart from gender, the hierarchical atmosphere in certain departments also stifles the effectiveness of diversity in the organization. In addition, different working styles are hard to deliver under the hierarchical atmosphere.
3) Work-family balance
Work-family balance is also advocated in the organization’s HR policies based on the philosophy of people-first. However, practically, the organization lacks appropriate actions to allow its employees to have well work-family balance life. It is indicated by the worse air quality of Beijing and many other organizations adopts flexible working system to allow its employees to work at home when the degree of air quality is “red alert”. However, DuPont Company in Beijing still forces its employees to commute to office to work regardless of the poor air quality.
2.0 HR issues
2.1 Motivation and teamwork
Work motivation is a significant source of fine work performance and high work efficiency (Latham and Pinder, 2005). There are tangible motivators such as bonus, promotion, paid leaves while there exists intangible motivators such as recognition, spiritual encourage (Latham and Pinder, 2005). In DuPont Company in Beijing (DuPont Beijing) , the motivation factors in tangible aspects are scarce despite the much spiritual encouragement and oral praise. HR in DuPont Beijing tends to select the head of departments outside rather than from within. For instance, the head of government affairs department is attracted by headhunters rather than promoted from one of the senior managers in the department who have much experience and knowledge in the field and the organization. According to the Motivation crowding theory, incentives could backfire, crowding out intrinsic motivation (Frey and Jegen 2001, cited in Rommela et al, 2015). However, the researched done by Rommela et al (2015) reveals that incentives could support rather than constrain individual motivation. In addition, according to Maslow’s hierarchical needs theory, only when people’ needs at the lower level are met can they desire higher needs in self-esteem and self-actualization (Lord, 2002). Therefore, the role of tangible needs still matter in motivating employees. Only spiritual rewards or oral encouragement has little effect for the majority of employees who have their lower needs not fulfilled. Motivation at the individual level severely affects the motivation of the entire team in which employees are involved. All in all, the HR issue in motivation and teamwork in DuPont Beijing is in need of attention and addressing immediately.
From the strategic point view, effective motivation at the individual level and team level benefit the organization in terms of work productivity, efficiency, performance and corporate reputation. Rommela et al (2015) argue that tangible incentives meet the needs of subjects in the pro-environment research and initiate the expected behavior. Lord’s research reveals that intangible motivators such as self-esteem and self-actualization needs play a key role in older engineers who have no financial stress in their life (Lord,2002). The two research indicate that appropriate needs could produce better work performance regardless of intangible or tangible forms as long as it fits in the needs and the actual situation of employees. When the fit is right and the needs are met, employees would work at high efficiency delivering their best performance. In a team, members of traits and team knowledge will play a role in understanding, predicting, acting of the team tasks (Rafferty et al, 2010). Guchait et al (2015) argue that shared team knowledge such as common goals, specific task allocation, management styles will constitute a source of motivation for individual to deliver better performance. In short, fits between motivators and needs will bring improved work productivity, efficiency, performance. In addition, the fine practice in motivation and teamwork will create better reputation for the organization to attract and retain talents.
Despite the strategic advantages of motivation and teamwork, the challenges and disadvantages should also be worthy of note. Tangible incentives such as bonus, paid holidays will cost larger amount of expenditure than the cases otherwise (Rafferty et al, 2010). In the long-term, the advantages outweigh such disadvantage. In the case of DuPont Beijing, promotion from within although could boost employee morale but it could also lead to conflict among other employees who are not promoted. Therefore, it is vital to achieve fairness and transparency in delivering incentives apart from ensuring the fits between the needs and motivators.
2.2 Managing diversity
Managing diversity is of strategic significance to competitive advantages of an organization. With internationalization of business, advanced telecommunication technology and rapid pace of work and life, diverse workforce has become a commonality (Mavin and Girling, 2000). The scope of diversity varies from gender, age, religion, ethnicity to values, characters and beliefs with gender as the most common and oldest topic of discussion in HRM studies (Shen et al, 2009). In the case of DuPont Beijing, gender inequality could be indicated by the gender spillover effects and the number of female in positions of head of department. According to Greer et al (2001), gender spillover effects refer to the fact that allocation of task is determined by gender expectations and stereotypes rather than actual capabilities (Greer et al, 2001). For instance, the departments of corporate communication and human resources in DuPont Beijing are dominated by female employees while the department of IT and R&D are dominated by male employees. As to this case, HR in the organization tends to recruit and evaluate candidates based on gender stereotypes and discrimination. Indeed, there is no doubt in some positions, female displays more advantages while in other positions, male are more suitable. However, gender inequality not only occurs in position preferences but also in evaluation and appraisal. According to the research done by Shen et al (2009), female employees are paid less than their male counterparts. Consequently, it undermines employee morale and affects corporate reputation.
The advantages of managing diversity could be illustrated by promoting creativity, innovation, flexibility, quality decision-making which all contributes to sources of competitive advantages for an organization. According to Mavin and Girling (2000) , managing diversity not only means “recognizing” but also “valuing and harnessing” individuals’ differences at workplace. A diverse workforce could bring diverse perspectives and high quality solution to problem-solving (Shen et al, 2009). In addition, diverse perceptions might ignite creativity and cause innovation for the organization (Shen et al, 2009). Marinova et al (2105) also argues that managing diversity means making the best of each individual’s potential and delivering the best performance for the organization, for which HR plays a role in creating atmosphere of inclusion and tolerance (Marinova et al, 2015). In this way, differences could be valued and utilized for the development of the organization. The direct benefits include more innovative ideas, enhancement of organization dynamics, quality decision-making. Indirectly, it could promote the corporate reputation which could attract and retain talented people and reduce absentees and turnovers.
The disadvantages of managing diversity lies in the costs in energy and time invested in resolving conflicts, removing stereotypes and discrimination, and adapting to diverse workforce environment by HR. The mismatch between the rhetoric claims and the actual practice constitute a major issue. It is worthy of exploration in how to address the issue of managing diversity in practice through strategic HRM which will be discussed in the recommendation part.
2.3 work-family balance
Work-family balance has become increasingly popular with increased family and work responsibilities. According to Aryee et al (2013), HR could make formal family supportive policies while could also advocate informal ones by creating family supportive work environment and training family supportive supervisors. Aryee et al (2013) further argue that informal family supportive policies and practice are more effective than formal ones in that the latter could make employees reluctant to utilize for fear of potential penalties associated with their career development. Duncan and Pettigrew (2012) argue that work arrangement such as flexible working time, shifts, self-employment have positive effects on employees’ work-life balance and self-concept. Greenhaus and Beutell (1985), identifies the sources of family and work conflicts which include long working hours and work overload causing time-based, strain-based and behavior-based conflicts. All the research indicates that flexible working arrangement could contribute to effective integration in family and work responsibilities. However, in the case of DuPont Beijing, flexible working time is hard to materialize. Informal family supportive policies also lack within the organization.
Work-family balance benefits not only the well-being of employees but also the overall performance and reputation of the organization. Firstly, work-family balance practice could enhance job satisfaction for employees as well as their well-being (Aryee et al, 2013). When they fulfill their both family and work responsibilities, this could foster their job satisfaction and benefit their well-being. These combined could lead to improved morale and thus work efficiency and performance (Losoncz and Bortolotto, 2009). Secondly, work-family balance could serves as a source of competitive advantages since it could bring win-win situation for employees and the organization (Duncan and Pettigrew, 2012). Organizations adopting work-family balance policies and practice could improve corporate performance and competitiveness due to the improved work efficiency and control over time. Flexible working mode with control over time by employees could create sense of self-esteem and self-concept which constitute a major motivator for their work (Duncan and Pettigrew, 2012). Lastly but not least, a well-designed formal and informal work-family balance practice by HR could create fine reputation for the organization (Losoncz and Bortolotto, 2009). The improved reputation could impress customers as well as attract and retain talents. In short, work-family balances of strategic importance to an organization.
The disadvantages and challenges of work-family balance lie in that HR must gain top management support in adopting informal family-friendly policies and practice. For some management, it is dismissed as distraction from work and waste of time and resources (Losoncz and Bortolotto, 2009). It is little researched about the invisible losses which would be avoided with less flexible working time. Therefore, HR should design the mode and policies appropriately to achieve the win-win situation for employees and the organization.
Recommendation 1: increased tangible incentives for the lower level of staff and adopt promotion from within to make the match between the motivator and needs
HR plays a key role in enhancing motivation and teamwork for the organization. It is not sufficient to only adopt spiritual encouragement and oral praise in practice. To make the match between motivators and needs, it is worthy to deliver tangible incentives to the lower level of staff for whom tangible incentives are what they need badly (Lord,2002). Apart from delivering more tangible incentives, promotion from within should be adopted to motivate staff of departments to deliver their best performance. Meanwhile, promotion from within also saves resources in external recruitment and training (Latham and Pinder, 2005). Although there are disadvantages such as adding more costs in delivering tangible incentives and causing internal conflicts by promotion from within, it is of strategic value to development of the organization in the long run.
Recommendation 2: enhanced female involvement in the management through awareness training and other HRM activities
Although it is up to capabilities to have female involved in the management, HR still could play a key role in managing diversity to improve gender equality and harness differences. Through awareness training in gender equality and diversity management, it is effective to reduce gender spillover effects and remove stereotypes in recruitment, appraisal and evaluation. Apart from awareness training, HR could advocate female involvement in decision-making process by making and implementing affirmative action policies. However, according to the research done by Marinova et al (2015), there is no direct relation between the number of board female and corporate performance. Nevertheless, it is useful to harness the differences to improve quality of solution to problems (Mavin and Girling, 2000). Much research in this filed are needed to justify the effectiveness of managing diversity.
Recommendation 3: increased top management support and adopt informal family-friendly policies and practice
HR could make work-family balance more effective by gaining top management support and implementing informal family-friendly policies. Although there are already outing activities, family day activities in place, it is still not sufficient to make employees fulfill their family and work responsibilities fully. Informal family-friendly policies such as flexible time arrangement in the case of poor air quality in Beijing could not only have employees had more control over time but also tend to build trust between them and the organization. This could serve as sources of motivation and competitive advantages for the organization (Aryee et al, 2013). Therefore, it is valuable for HR to adopt informal family-friendly practice to achieve a win-win situation for employees and the organization.
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