这是我们在2017年为加拿大University of Calgary的学妹做的一篇环境 essay 代写的范文。本文主要介绍EIA（环境影响评估）体系作用及其缺陷。文章开头部分指出作为预防原则的说明，环境影响评估（EIA）已被广泛用作规划或管理工具，以帮助减少开发项目对环境带来的潜在危害。以下是环境 essay 代写的范文。
An an illustration of precautionary principle, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely used as either a planning or management tool to help minimize potential harmful consequences brought by development projects (Munn, 2015). The primary goal for EIA is to ensure environmental protection and management. It is a multi-layed process which comprises “a series of the iterative steps including: consideration of alternatives, action design, screening, scoping, preparation of the EIA report, reviewing or evaluating the report, decision-making, and post-decision practices such as monitoring and auditing” (Ahammed, 2007). Researches carried out in recent years focus more and more on the significant role of follow-up activities such as monitoring and auditing and EIA has been criticized for its concerning over only steps up to the planning decision while ignoring the significance of post-development follow-up activities.
The existing system of EIA emphasize too much on the pre-decision stages and the preparation of Environmental Impact Statement, and this make the EIA more as a tool for achieving development consent rather than for building sound environmental protection and management. Due to its procedural nature, many of current EIA process tend to treat the final refusal or ranting of development consent as the end-point of the process. There is little emphasis on the environmental consequences which are actually brought by the developments (Sadler, 1988). No attentions have been paid for the following ups and and comparing between what are predicated to happen and what really happen. As criticized by Culhane, EIA becomes a process of “building it and forgetting it” (Dipper et al. 1998, p.733). Under such a context, the efficient and sensible use of follow-up strategies such as post-auditing and monitoring will result in numerous benefits.
Though there are various factors, such as the inadequate resources and capital or the inappropriate approaches and techniques, have been identified for the weakness of EIA monitoring and auditing, the fundamental reason for the weakness of monitoring and auditing in the EIA process is considered to be the lacking of a mandatory inclusion of the follow-up activities into the regulating system, and the insufficient of legislative and institutional regulations.
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